Labyrinthitis

Definition

Labyrinthitis is swelling and irritation in the inner ear. It occurs in the labyrinth of the ear. This is a system of cavities and canals. They affect hearing, balance, and eye movement.

Labyrinthitis
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Causes

Labyrinthitis is caused by damage or impairment of the labyrinth part of the cochlea from:

  • Infection
  • Trauma
  • Inflammation
  • Drugs

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chances of labyrinthitis include:

  • Current or recent viral infection, especially a respiratory infection
  • Allergies
  • Smoking
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Stress
  • Head injury
  • Disease of blood vessels
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Side effects of drugs, including:
    • Certain antibiotics
    • Aspirin
    • Quinine—may be used for malaria treatment

Symptoms

The symptoms can range from mild to severe and last for days or many weeks. Symptoms are usually temporary, but rarely, can become permanent.

The most common symptoms are:

  • A spinning sensation
  • Lightheadedness
  • Balance problems

Other symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hearing loss
  • Involuntary eye movement
  • Ringing in the ear

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may also need an ear and/or a neurological exam.

This can be done with:

  • Maneuvers for evaluating for other causes of lightheadedness
  • Hearing tests

Images help evaluate the ears or other structues. This can be done with:

Your eyes may also be tested. This can be done with an electronystagmogram.

Treatment

Treatment may include:

Medications

Medication to control the symptoms, including:

  • Antiemetics—to control nausea and vomiting
  • Vestibular suppressants—to limit vertigo
  • Steroids—in limited situations, to help control inflammation
  • Antibiotics—to treat a bacterial infection

Note: Without antibiotic treatment, labyrinthitis caused by a bacterial infection can lead to permanent hearing loss or balance problems.

Self-care Measures

Some steps to help you manage your symptoms include:

  • Rest by lying still with your eyes closed in a darkened room during acute attacks.
  • Avoid movement, especially sudden movement, as much as possible.
  • Avoid reading.
  • Resume normal activities gradually after the symptoms have cleared.

Vestibular Exercises (Vestibular Rehabilitation)

Your doctor may suggest specific vestibular exercises. These exercises use a series of eye, head, and body movements to get the body used to moving without the sensation of spinning. You may work with a physical therapist to learn these.

Emergency Treatment

In some cases, nausea and vomiting cannot be controlled. This can result in severe dehydration . You may need hospitalization to receive fluids and nutrients through an IV. You may also need antiemetic medication.

Surgery

Rarely, labyrinthitis may be caused by a break in the membranes between the outer and inner ear. Surgery to repair the break may be required. If a tumor is causing the condition, surgery may also be needed.

Prevention

To help reduce your chances of labyrinthitis:

  • Seek prompt treatment for any ear problems or infection.
  • Avoid head injury by wearing seat belts and safety helmets.
  • Ask your doctor about side effects of any medications you are taking.
  • Avoid drinking excess alcohol.

Revisions

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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

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