Hives

Definition

Hives are small, itchy, red swollen areas on the skin. The swelling occurs singularly or in clusters. Hives tend to fade after a few hours, but new ones can appear. Most cases go away within a few days. However, some last a few weeks or longer.

Hives
Nucleus factsheet image
© Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

Hives are often caused when the body releases a chemical called histamine. Histamine is released during an allergic reaction. Many people, though, get hives without being exposed to something they are allergic to.

While the cause is unknown in some cases, these factors may cause hives:

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of hives include:

  • Exposure to an allergen—something that causes an allergic reaction
  • Exposure to an allergen that triggered hives in the past

Symptoms

Symptoms of hives can vary from mild-to-severe:

  • Itchiness
  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Excessive swelling of the eyelids, lips, or genitals
  • Burning
  • Stinging
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing— Call for emergency services right away if you are having these symptoms.

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may need to see a doctor who specializes in skin disorders (dermatologist) or allergies (allergist).

Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:

Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with x-rays .

Treatment

The best way to treat hives is to find and then avoid the cause.

If the cause can't be found, there are medications to reduce symptoms or treat hives:

  • Antihistamines
  • Leukotriene antagonists
  • Oral steroid medications for hives resistant to other treatments
  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Immunosuppressant medications
  • Ultraviolet light therapy
  • Prescription epinephrine (adrenalin) injections for cases when swelling affects the airways

Prevention

The best way to prevent hives is to avoid the allergen that caused you to get hives in the past.

Revisions

All EBSCO Publishing proprietary, consumer health and medical information found on this site is accredited by URAC. URAC's Health Web Site Accreditation Program requires compliance with 53 rigorous standards of quality and accountability, verified by independent audits. To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at HLEditorialTeam@ebscohost.com.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support
Copyright © 2008 EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.

Create joy and satisfaction. Positive emotions can boost your ability to bounce back from stress.