Hairy Cell Leukemia


Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare form of cancer. It involves white blood cells called B lymphocytes. White blood cells protect the body from infection. HCL gets its name from the tiny hair-like projections that stick out of the surface of these cancer cells. Illness results from the build up of these cancer cells in the bone marrow and spleen.

White Blood Cells
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


Cancer occurs when cells in the body become abnormal. They divide without control or order. Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells and their parent cells. Leukemia cells do not function normally. In this case, they can not fight infections. This means that the person is more likely to become infected with viruses or bacteria. The cancerous cells also overgrow the bone marrow. This forces other normal cells, like platelets out. Platelets are needed to help the blood clot. As a result, people with leukemia may bleed more easily.

The exact cause of HCL is unknown, but it may be linked to a genetic mutation.

Risk Factors

HCL occurs more often in men. It also occurs more often in people over the age of 50.


HCL usually develops slowly over time. Early on, there may not be any symptoms.

In those that have them, symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal swelling
  • Fever
  • Easy bruising
  • Night sweats
  • Swollen lymph nodes


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:

Images may be taken of your bodily structures with a CT scan .


HCL is a slow-growing cancer. As HCL progresses, treatment may include:

  • Surgery— A splenectomy may need to be done to remove an enlarged spleen.
  • Chemotherapy —This is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be given in many forms. This includes pill, injection, and via a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body.
  • Medications, such as cladribine, pentostatin, and interferon, are used to fight the hairy cells.
  • Blood transfusion —A blood transfusion may be done to treat anemia.
  • Antibiotics or other medications to fight infection.


There are no guidelines for preventing HCL because the exact cause is unknown.


Please note, not all procedures included in this resource library are available at Allegiance Health or performed by Allegiance Health physicians.

All EBSCO Publishing proprietary, consumer health and medical information found on this site is accredited by URAC. URAC's Health Web Site Accreditation Program requires compliance with 53 rigorous standards of quality and accountability, verified by independent audits. To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support
Copyright © 2008 EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.

Making lifestyle changes, such as avoiding problematic foods or starting a new bedtime routine, may help reduce the symptoms of your acid reflux.