Coccyx Fracture

Definition

A coccyx fracture is a broken tailbone. The coccyx is the lowest part of the backbone or spine. It is small and shaped like a triangle. The bone curves gently from the end of the spine into the pelvis.

The Coccyx
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Causes

Coccyx fracture is caused by trauma. Trauma may be caused by:

  • Falls
  • Childbirth, which may result in a newborn breaking the mother's coccyx

Fractures may may also occur during straining or friction, such as with rowing or bike riding.

Risk Factors

Coccyx fractures are more common in women. Other risk factors that may increase your chance of a coccyx fracture include:

  • Increased age
  • Osteoporosis
  • Certain diseases or conditions that result in bone or mineral loss, such as abnormal or absent menstrual cycles or menopause
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Certain congenital bone conditions
  • Participating in certain activities, such as skating or contact sports that may lead to falls in a seated position
  • Violence

Symptoms

A coccyx fracture may cause:

  • Pain that increases with sitting or getting up from a chair
  • Pain that increases during a bowel movement
  • Tenderness over the tailbone

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and how the injury occurred. A physical exam will be done. The exam may include a rectal exam. If the coccyx is fractured, your doctor may feel abnormal movement of the coccyx. You will experience pain. X-rays may or may not be needed.

Treatment

The goal is to manage pain until the bone can heal. The location of the coccyx and the number of muscles attached to it makes it difficult to prevent it from moving while it is healing. Generally, pain will go away on its own.

The area may remain painful for a long period of time, even after the fracture has healed. You may be advised to stay in bed for a day or two, or move only as comfort allows.

Medications

Medications may be given to help manage pain. These include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen
  • Analgesics, such as acetaminophen
  • Prescription pain medications
  • Local anesthetic injections
  • Rarely, local steroid injections

You may also need stool softeners to help prevent constipation or pain during bowel movements.

Surgery

Surgery for a painful coccyx fracture is rare and not very successful. If pain continues and causes disability, a coccygectomy might be recommended. During this procedure, the doctor removes the coccyx.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of a coccyx fracture, take these steps:

  • Do not put yourself at risk for trauma to the bone.
  • Build strong muscles to prevent falls.
  • Wear proper padding and safety equipment when participating in sports or activities.

To help reduce falling hazards at work and home, take these steps:

  • Clean spills and slippery areas right away.
  • Remove tripping hazards such as loose cords, rugs, and clutter.
  • Use non-slip mats in the bathtub and shower.
  • Install grab bars next to the toilet and in the shower or tub.
  • Put in handrails on both sides of stairways.
  • Walk only in well-lit rooms, stairs, and halls.
  • Keep flashlights on hand in case of a power outage.

Revisions

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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

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