Addison's Disease

Definition

Addison's disease is a rare disorder of the adrenal glands. With Addison's, the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone.

Adrenal Glands
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Addison's occurs because of damage to the cortex.
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Causes

Addison's disease is the result of gradual damage to the outer layer of the adrenal gland. This damage may be caused by:

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chance of getting Addison's disease include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

  • Extreme weakness, fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Muscle weakness or pain
  • Darkening of freckles, nipples, scars, skin creases, gums, mouth, nail beds, and vaginal lining
  • Emotional changes, especially depression
  • Cognitive impairment or confusion
  • Craving salty foods
  • Abdominal pain
  • Anorexia
  • Amenorrhea

A severe complication of Addison's disease is the Addisonian or adrenal crisis . Adrenal crisis is a life threatening disorder, its symptoms include:

  • High or low body temperature
  • Severe abdominal, back, or leg pain
  • Fainting
  • Severe dehydration
  • Severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Bluish skin color
  • Muscle weakness

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • ACTH stimulation test

Your doctor may also need images of your bodily structures. This can be done with:

Treatment

Symptoms of Addison's disease can be controlled with medications. These drugs replace the missing hormones. Medication needs to be taken for the rest of your life. They may need to be increased during times of stress.

Immediate treatment of adrenal crisis includes:

  • Self-injection of dexamethasone
  • Hydrocortisone by IV
  • Normal saline by IV

Surgery may also be needed for adrenal tumors or pituitary tumors causing the disease.

Maintenance

Regular blood tests are needed to monitor your response to medication. Wear a medical alert bracelet that states adrenal insufficiency or Addison's disease. This will let others know of your condition if you are unable to communicate.

Prevention

There are no guidelines for preventing Addison's disease. If you think you are at risk, talk to your doctor.

Revisions

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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

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