Angle-Closure Glaucoma

Definition

Glaucoma represents a group of eye disorders that may cause damage to the optic nerve due to high intraocular pressure. Glaucoma is a degenerative eye disease and one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States.

Angle-closure glaucoma is a condition in which the iris in the eye shifts and blocks the exit passageway of the fluid in the front compartment of the eye. This fluid blockage causes a rapid build-up of pressure in the eye.

Angle-closure glaucoma is an emergency condition that requires immediate medical treatment to preserve vision.

Glaucoma
si1268 97870 1 glaucoma
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

The exact cause of narrow-angle glaucoma is unknown. However, factors that play a role in causing the disease include:

  • Narrowing of the drainage angle in the eye—Aging and being farsighted are two causes of this narrowing.
  • Being born with narrow angles—more common in people who are Asian
  • Injury to the eye

Sometimes certain medications can cause sudden angle-closure glaucoma. These include:

  • Adrenergics
  • Anticholinergics
  • Botulism injections around the eye
  • Sulfa-based drugs
  • Phenothiazines and monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Medications to treat Parkinson's disease

Risk Factors

Angle-closure glaucoma is more common in older aging adults and in Asian people. Other factors that may increase your chance of developing angle-closure glaucoma include:

  • Family history of narrow angle glaucoma
  • Injury to the eye
  • Eye drops used to dilate the eyes
  • Certain systemic medications
  • Developing cataracts

Symptoms

Patients with narrow angles experience few or no symptoms until the disease has progressed to an acute angle-closure attack. Symptoms may include:

  • Severe pain in the eye
  • Pupil not reacting to light
  • Blurred or cloudy vision
  • Sudden vision loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Redness and swelling of the eye
  • Headache

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Tests may include:

  • Eye exam
  • Tonometry —a test to determine intraocular pressure
  • Slit lamp examination—the use of a low-power microscope combined with a high-intensity light source, allows a narrow beam that can be focused to examine the front of the eye
  • Gonioscopy—to examine the outflow channels of the angle

Treatment

Angle-closure glaucoma requires emergency medical treatment to preserve vision. See an ophthalmologist immediately if you have any signs or symptoms of an angle-closure glaucoma attack. Treatment options include:

  • Medications—Eye drops, pills, and sometimes even intravenous drugs are often administered to reduce intraocular pressure.
  • Surgery—Surgery may be used to stop or prevent an attack of angle-closure glaucoma. This is usually done by laser.

Prevention

Angle-closure glaucoma can't be prevented. Regular eye exams are important to screen for eye conditions such as glaucoma.

Revisions

All EBSCO Publishing proprietary, consumer health and medical information found on this site is accredited by URAC. URAC's Health Web Site Accreditation Program requires compliance with 53 rigorous standards of quality and accountability, verified by independent audits. To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at HLEditorialTeam@ebscohost.com.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support
Copyright © 2008 EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.

Here’s a tip for including more healthy foods in your diet. As you put your groceries away, chop some fruits and vegetables. Keep them in snack size bags in the refrigerator so they will be ready to grab on the go.