Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth

Definition

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) occurs when there is a build-up of too much bacteria in the small bowel.

The Small Intestines
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Causes

SBBO is often caused by an abnormality in the small bowel. Food is not able to flow properly though the intestines. Conditions that may cause this include:

  • Birth defect
  • Injury
  • Surgery
  • Digestive disorders

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of SBBO include:

Other risk factors include:

  • Intestinal surgery
  • An obstruction in the small intestine
  • Weakened immune system
  • Older age

Any condition that affects how food moves through the small bowel may increase the risk of SBBO.

Symptoms

SBBO may cause:

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Tests may include

  • Blood tests
  • Breath tests—to analyze certain gases that may be present after fasting and eating specific sugars
  • Culture of intestinal fluid (aspirate)—a catheter is used to get a sample of fluid from the small bowel

Treatment

The goals are to:

  • Reduce the levels of harmful bacteria in the small bowel
  • Treat the underlying condition

Medications

Antibiotics are often prescribed to treat SBBO. Usually treatment is temporary, but in some cases you may need to take antibiotics for a longer period.

Nutritional Support

To make sure that you get the proper nutrients, you may need to:

  • Work with a dietitian
  • Follow a special diet, such as a carbohydrate-restricted diet
  • Take vitamins and/or supplements
  • Take probiotics

In some cases, tube feeding is needed with a special formula.

Surgery

For severe cases, surgery may be needed. This is done to correct an abnormality in the small bowel.

Prevention

If you have any of the conditions that are linked to SBBO, get proper treatment. This may reduce your chance of having a build-up of bacteria in the small bowel.

Revisions

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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

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