Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Fusion may be caused by:
- Birth (congenital) defect
Fusion of the bones leads to hearing loss, because the bones are not moving and vibrating in reaction to sound waves.
Torres AI, Backous DD. Clinical assessment and surgical treatment of conductive hearing loss. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:chap 143.