|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
There are several types of thyroid cancer:
- Papillary carcinoma (most common type)—It usually grows very slowly and often spreads to lymph nodes in the neck. If caught early, this type of thyroid cancer is often curable.
- Follicular carcinoma (second most common type)—It usually stays in the thyroid gland, but can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs and bones. It does not usually spread to the lymph nodes. If caught early, this type of thyroid cancer is often curable.
- Anaplastic carcinoma (rare form of thyroid cancer)—It quickly invades the neck and other parts of the body and is often fatal.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)—This cancer develops from cells in the thyroid gland called C-cells.
MTC often spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, or liver before a thyroid nodule has been discovered. There are two types of MTC:
- Sporadic MTC
- Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC)
- Thyroid lymphoma (rare type of thyroid cancer)—Many cases occur in people who have a disease called Hashimoto thyroiditis.
Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Eventually these uncontrolled cells form a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths can invade nearby tissues including the lymph nodes. Cancer that has invaded the lymph nodes can then spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but is probably a combination of genetics and environment.
Thyroid cancer is more common in women, and in people aged 30 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chances of thyroid cancer:
- Diet low in iodine
- History of radiation to the head, neck, or chest, especially in infancy or childhood
- Family history of thyroid cancer
- Enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features—acromegaly
- Sjogren's syndrome
- Exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear accidents or exposed to nuclear testing area during childhood
Thyroid cancer may cause:
- A lump in the neck, usually over the thyroid
- Neck pain (sometimes going up to the ears)
- Difficulty swallowing
- Difficulty breathing
- Persistent cough
- Enlarged lymph glands in the neck
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. This may include a careful examination of your neck to look for lumps or abnormalities.
Tests may include:
The physical exam, combined with all of your test results, will help to determine the type and stage of cancer you have. Staging is used to guide your treatment plan. Like other cancers, thyroid cancer is staged from I-IV. Stage I is a very localized cancer, while stage IV indicates a spread to other parts of the body
Cancer treatment varies depending on the stage and type of cancer. Options may include:
- Thyroidectomy—Removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.
- Radioactive iodine therapy—Large doses of radioactive iodine are used to destroy the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer without affecting the rest of the body.
- External radiation therapy—To kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation is directed at the tumor from a source outside the body.
Because the exact cause of thyroid cancer is unknown, early detection and treatment lead to better outcomes. Your doctor may recommend screening tests if you are at high risk for thyroid cancer. For example:
- Have a thyroid exam every 3 years if you are aged 20-39 years old
- Have a thyroid exam every year if you are aged 40 years or older
Since exposure to radiation is a major risk factor for thyroid cancer, you should:
- Avoid unnecessary exposure to radiation.
- If you have been exposed to radiation of the head, neck, or chest, have frequent checks for thyroid cancer.
- EBSCO Medical Review Board Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
- Reviewed: 09/2017
- Updated: 10/01/2014
Please note, not all procedures included in this resource library are available at Henry Ford Allegiance Health or performed by Henry Ford Allegiance Health physicians.
All EBSCO Publishing proprietary, consumer health and medical information found on this site is accredited by URAC. URAC's Health Web Site Accreditation Program requires compliance with 53 rigorous standards of quality and accountability, verified by independent audits. To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at HLEditorialTeam@ebscohost.com.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.