Snoring is a sound made during sleep. It is the sound of the throat vibrating as air flows through it.
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Air should be able to move easily through your mouth, nose, and throat. Sometimes, during sleep, air cannot move through these areas easily. This poor airflow makes the roof of the mouth vibrate. This is what causes the snoring sound. Smaller airways can lead to louder snoring. Airflow may be obstructed by:
- Weak muscles in the tongue and throat
- Enlarged tonsils, adenoids, or other obstructions such as a tumors or cysts
- Excessive tissue around the throat due to obesity
- A long, soft palate
- A long uvula
- Deformities of the nose or nasal septum
- Small chin, overbite, or high palate
- Congested nasal passages from a cold, flu, sinus infection, or allergies
This condition is more common in those over 50 years, especially men. Other factors include:
- Being overweight
- A family history of snoring
- Use of drugs (central nervous system depressants) or alcohol that act as respiratory depressants
- Lying on back while sleeping
- Nasal obstruction due to a cold, sinus infection, allergy, enlarged adenoids, or injury that has displaced the nasal cartilage or bones
The main symptom of snoring is noisy breathing during sleep.
Snoring may be associated with a sleep condition called sleep apnea. Snoring with sleep apnea may cause these symptoms:
- Long pauses in breathing
- Frequent awakening
- Sleepiness and fatigue during the day
- Slowness in mental functioning
When Should I Call My Doctor?
Call your doctor if you snore and you have other symptoms of sleep apnea. Talk to your doctor if you have regular snoring that is bothering you or your partner.
If your child is snoring regularly, talk to their doctor.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done, especially of the throat, neck, mouth, and nose.
Tests may include a sleep study in a laboratory to determine how much the storing is disrupting your sleep.
In cases of snoring without sleep apnea, lifestyle changes may relieve symptoms. More severe cases may require surgery or devices.
Changes that may help stop snoring include:
- If you are overweight, lose weight.
- Exercise to improve muscle tone.
- Avoid drinking alcohol or taking sedatives.
- Establish regular sleeping patterns.
- Sleep on your side rather than on your back.
- Treat causes of nasal congestion, such as allergies or colds.
- Raise the head of the bed up about 4 inches. Use extra pillows or put something under the mattress.
Surgery may be done to remove excess tissue in the nose or throat. During surgery, a laser or scalpel will remove the tissue that is blocking the airway. Treatment by laser surgery requires a series of surgeries. These surgeries are usually reserved for severe and disruptive cases of snoring.
Another procedure is to try to stiffen the roof of the mouth.
Devices that can open airways during sleep include:
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)—airway is propped open by a continuous flow of air. The air passes through a mask-like device that you wear during sleep. It is more commonly used for people with obstructive sleep apnea.
- Mouthpieces—to help position the soft palate and tongue for better breathing
To reduce the chances of snoring, take these steps:
- Maintain a healthy body weight.
- Treat cold and allergy symptoms.
- Avoid drinking alcohol or taking sedatives for several hours before bedtime.
- Sleep on your side.
- Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Reviewed: 06/2016
- Updated: 05/11/2013
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