Principal Proposed Uses

Anyone who lives in a locale where nettle grows wild will eventually discover the powers of this dark green plant. Depending on the species, the fine hairs on its leaves and stem cause burning pain that lasts from hours to weeks. But this well-protected herb has also been used as medicine. Nettle juice was used in Hippocrates' time to treat bites and stings, and European herbalists recommended nettle tea for lung disorders. Nettle tea was used by Native Americans as an aid in pregnancy, childbirth, and nursing.

What Is Nettle Used for Today?

Currently, nettle root is more commonly used medicinally than the above-ground portion of the herb. In Europe, nettle root is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , or prostate enlargement. Like saw palmetto, pygeum, and beta-sitosterol, nettle appears to reduce obstruction to urinary flow and decrease the need for nighttime urination. However, the evidence is not as strong for nettle as it is for these other treatments.

Note : Before self-treating prostate symptoms with nettle root, be sure to get a proper medical evaluation to rule out prostate cancer.

Nettle leaf has become a popular treatment for allergies (hay fever) based on one preliminary double-blind study.

Nettle leaf is highly nutritious and, in cooked form, may be used as a general dietary supplement.

What Is the Scientific Evidence for Nettle?

The evidence is much better for nettle root and prostatic enlargement than for nettle leaf and allergies.

Nettle Root

Nettle root as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia has not been as well studied as saw palmetto , but the evidence is still substantial

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study performed in Iran, 558 people were given either placebo or nettle root for 6 months. 21 The results indicated that nettle root is significantly more effective than placebo on all major measures of BPH severity. Benefits were seen in three other double-blind studies as well, enrolling a total of more than 150 men. 7 -9

There are theoretical reasons to believe that nettle root's effectiveness might be enhanced when it is combined with another herb used for prostate problems: pygeum . 12,13 Nettle has also been studied in combination with saw palmetto, with mixed results. 14,15,22

Nettle root contains numerous biologically active chemicals that may influence the prostate indirectly by interacting with sex hormones, or directly by altering the properties of prostate cells. 1-5,18-20

Nettle Leaf

One preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled study following 69 people suggests that freeze-dried nettle leaf may at least slightly improve allergy symptoms. 10

One small double-blind study suggests that direct application of stinging nettle leaf to a painful joint may improve symptoms. 11


Dosages of nettle root extract vary according to preparation, and we recommend following label instructions. Some nettle root products are standardized to their content of the substance scopoletin, but since this substance is not established as an active ingredient, the significance of this standardization remains unclear.

For allergies, the studied dosage is 300 mg twice a day of freeze-dried nettle leaf.

Safety Issues

Because nettle leaf has a long history of food use, it is believed to be safe.

Nettle root does not have as extensive a history to go by. Although detailed safety studies have not been reported, no significant adverse effects have been noted in Germany where nettle root is widely used. In practice, it is nearly side-effect free. In one study of 4,087 people who took 600 to 1,200 mg of nettle root daily for 6 months, less than 1% reported mild gastrointestinal distress and only 0.19% experienced allergic reactions (skin rash). 16

For theoretical reasons, there are some concerns that nettle may interact with diabetes, blood pressure, anti-inflammatory, and sedative medications, although there are no reports of any problems occurring. 17

The safety of nettle root or leaf for pregnant or nursing mothers has not been established, and there are concerns based on animal studies and its traditional use for inducing abortions. 18 However, nettle leaf tea is a traditional drink for pregnant and nursing women.

Interactions You Should Know About

If you are taking:

  • Anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, sedative, or blood sugar-lowering medications: Nettle might conceivably interact with them, although this is unlikely.


Please note, not all procedures included in this resource library are available at Henry Ford Allegiance Health or performed by Henry Ford Allegiance Health physicians.

All EBSCO Publishing proprietary, consumer health and medical information found on this site is accredited by URAC. URAC's Health Web Site Accreditation Program requires compliance with 53 rigorous standards of quality and accountability, verified by independent audits. To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support
Copyright © 2008 EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.

When recovering from surgery or an injury, prepare your home by placing often-used objects within easy reach, and keep a hard-backed chair in every room so you can sit while doing daily tasks.